•1700s – Scottish become 1st European immigrants to settle Robeson County.
•1725 -John Herbert(Commissioner of Indian Trade for the Wineau Company) publishes a map
that identifies groups of Native Indians living along the Pee Dee River.
•1738-1739 – A smallpox epidemic decimates the Indian population in North Carolina, especially in the east. It is
estimated that nearly 90% of the Native population perished.
•1747-1776 – The Coharie, Catawba, and ancestors of the Lumbee join the Patriot cause.
•1754 – Governor Arthur Dobbs receives report of 50 Indian families living along Drowning Creek (present-day Lumber River in Robeson County). This is the first written account of the tribe from which the Lumbee are
•1830–Federal Indian Removal Act: President Andrew Jackson signs the act calling for all Native people to be forcibly removed from their homes to lands west of the Mississippi River.
•1835–Although the Lumbee people were not forced to move west, NC began the passage of legislation that disenfranchised the Lumbee and all “Free Persons of Color.” These laws prevented all “Free Persons of Color” from voting and owning/using firearms.
–1835– 1865: The Lumbee were legally classified as “Free Persons of Color,” a categorization that usually
meant former slaves and their descendents.
–American Indians in Robeson Co. were left without a way to hunt or defend themselves –> “Tied Mule” incidents.
•1861-1865 Lumbee during the Civil War
–NC begins to forcibly conscript young American Indian men from Robeson County. The Lumbee are forced to work on Confederate fortifications near Wilmington (Ft. Fisher). Many flee to join resistance groups, like the one led by Henry Berry Lowry.
•1865 –1874 The Lowry War
-Henry Berry Lowry – Outlaw/Hero/Modern-day Robin Hood
-The Lowry band employs guerrilla tactics in its war against Robeson County’s White-dominated power structure. Indians, Blacks, and poor Whites unite in support of the group.
•1866 – 1885–During this period, the Lumbee had no legal designation and suffered many of the liabilities of being regarded as “non-White.”
•1875–The state constitution changed, establishing separate schools based on race and forbade interracial marriage.
•1885–Lumbees were legally recognized as “Croatan Indians” and established a separate American Indian-run school system for them. This system grew to include 30 elementary schools and one Indian normal school (UNC Pembroke).
•1890–“Blood Committees” – NC Supreme Court gives American Indians authority to determine
students’ eligibility to attend Indian schools. Croatan school board bases determination on blood purity.